Sunday, December 26, 2010

My Reflection on Technology Integration with Differentiated Instruction

Over the past several weeks, I have learned about three major principles of Universal Design for Learning. These principles are multiple means of representation, multiple means of action and expression, and multiple means of engagement. These three principles allow students the opportunity to acquire new knowledge, demonstrate what they know, and become engaged based on their interest and learning styles in new and diverse ways. In addition, I have also learned that technology can help provide a variety of methods and approaches to support student learning. Technology can also provide tools to implement the three principles of Universal Design for Learning through Differentiated Instruction.

As a result of my learning, I plan to take some immediate adjustments with my instructional practice in regards to use technology to help customize differentiated instruction within my own classroom. For instance, through multiple means of representation, I plan to use technology to provide my English language learner students, with cross-linguistic materials to help them learn content and curriculum through their native language, until they have mastered the English language. I will use an online computer program called Education City that provides bi-lingual instruction for my second grade Spanish students. This website will provide students the opportunity to learn second grade curriculum without the obstacle of a language barrier.

Through multiple means of action and expression, I will use technology to provide my students with the opportunity to show their knowledge through multiple media outlets such as through the Interactive SMART Board, Student Clickers, Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, KidPix, Podcasts, and Kid Inspiration. Instead of simply using paper and pencil activities to demonstrate their knowledge, students will have the continued opportunity to use multiple media outlets and avenues to express their thinking and actions.

Furthermore, through multiple means of engagement, students in my class will have the opportunity to use technology to vary their levels of challenges and support within the classroom. For instance, some students may have the option to type their stories or journal entries on the computer based on their readiness and abilities. I hope that through provided more options students will feel more engaged and challenged throughout the day.

Based on my new learning experiences, I am excited to witness just how much technology will help support student learning and differentiated instruction within my own classroom.

Sunday, October 31, 2010

My Final Reflection on My GAME Plan

As I reflect on my past experiences with implementing technology in the classroom, I am pleased to know that I have used technology in a variety of ways to help support student learning. Unfortunately, I was not always consistent with measuring how technology was used to enhance student learning within my classroom. I did not have a GAME plan that addressed the needs of my students academically and provided ways in which I planned to meet those needs. Now, I am much more guided and focused on how I use technology within the classroom to meet the needs of my students across all content areas.

After establishing a GAME plan that aims to facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity, I have been much more conscientious about how integrating technology truly does make a difference in developing students to be 21st century learners. As a result of implementing a GAME plan for this school year, I have developed an electronic portfolio that keeps track of which technology related programs, activities or projects I’ve used to enhance student learning on a weekly basis.

To help make my electronic portfolio even more meaningful, I would like to add a brief comment section, where I describe whether the technology related activity used was successful or needed some improvements or adjustments in order to help students learn at their highest level. I hope that the comment section will help guide my instruction for future activities and act as an additional way for me to monitor and evaluate student learning and progress throughout the school year. Ultimately, I would like to use this electronic portfolio as a valuable resource that will also guide my instruction and future GAME plans for the years to come.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Using the GAME Plan Process with My Students

When I think about the progress I’ve made over the past several weeks with my GAME plan, I can definitely see how using this same approach with my students can help them grow and develop into 21st century learners. In today’s time, students need to perform well in the technology standards and indicators outlined in the NTES-S. More specifically, I believe the areas of communication, collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making are especially important for students to develop in order to thrive at school and in the work place. With their colleagues and fellow classmates, students need to know how to appropriately identify problems, plan solutions, collect and analyze data to identify their solutions, and use multiple tools to communicate their solutions.

When I think about our Content Area Unit Plan and its three major parts (problem based learning, collaborative activities, and digital storytelling), I can see how using the GAME plan with students could help to make this unit a success. For instance, at the beginning of the unit, students can create an overall goal for completing their lesson objectives. Next, they can establish a plan of action for how they will accomplish their goals throughout the unit. Then, students can monitor their goals along the way through writing self reflections in their journals. Finally, students can evaluate the achievement of their learning goals through informal and formal assessments. As a result of going through this type of GAME plan throughout our unit, students will gain further proficiency in the standards outlined from the NTES-S.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Revising My GAME Plan

My GAME plan is to become a more self-directed and lifelong learner by strengthening my confidence and proficiency in the following two areas:


• Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership

• Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity

In order to engage in professional growth and leadership, I have taken actions towards increasing my skills and knowledge in the area of integrating technology in the classroom. I have collaborated with our information technology staff members to find more ways to seamlessly integrate technology and interactive learning activities into our daily classroom routine and instruction. Through my graduate school courses at Walden University, I have also learned new and exciting ways to integrate technology across all content areas. For example, I am currently learning how to integrate technology into problem based learning activities, through digital storytelling and through online collaboration tools.

As a way to facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity, I have tried to find more ways to motivate my students into becoming more creative thinkers. I have tried to integrate more technological tools within the classroom to develop more creative thinking and reasoning skills within my students. I hope that through my modeling and with the support of technology, students will be able to reflect upon and demonstrate more creative thinking.

I would like to continue this GAME plan for the remainder of the school year; therefore I am not ready to set new learning goals at this time. I want to continue inspiring students to learn and to be creative thinkers through the use of technology. As a way to extend my learning, I will find new learning approaches towards meeting my goal. In addition to the learning resources provided through Walden University, I will begin to seek out more professional development through social networking and online collaboration tools. I will also continue to use professional journal articles from credible sources to enhance my learning experience.

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Evaluating my GAME Plan

As a way to monitor my professional growth and leadership development, I have decided to create an electronic portfolio that demonstrates the technology learning activities used with my students across all content areas for my GAME plan. So far in my electronic portfolio, I have included all technology related activities I have done with my students across all content areas. These activities have helped make learning more engaging and interactive for my students. While monitoring my GAME plan, I made an adjustment to update my electronic portfolio on a weekly basis instead of on a monthly basis, which was part of my original implementation plan. I have found that this approach helps me reach my goal more effectively because it allows me the opportunity to reflect more frequently on the types of activities used with my students.

Throughout the implementation of this GAME plan, I have learned to be more structured, clear and precise with my planning on a weekly basis so that I can truly relate and integrate technology across all content areas. By staying more focused during my weekly planning process, I have been able to maximize my instructional practices with my students. We have less down time throughout our day and our lessons are much more focused.

I want to continue using a variety of technology activities with my students across areas. Are there any other suggestions on the type of technology I could integrate within my classroom to help make learning more engaging and meaningful for my students? So far, I have used many interactive SMART Board activities and students have typed a personal story using Microsoft Word documents. In the near future, I would like for students to create PowerPoint presentations, make KidPix slide shows, create a podcast, and make a class webpage about the life of a famous person we have studied in our social studies unit. I am also interested in having them experience making a voice thread, but I would like to have suggestions on how to simply integrate voice threads into our second grade curriculum.

To adjust my GAME plan, I will add links to our already existing class webpage that shows the technology related activities we have done in our class so that parents can also share our learning experiences with us.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Monitoring My GAME Plan Progress

According to Cennamo, Ross and Ertmer (2009), self-directed learners engage in planning, evaluating and monitoring their learning activities. Therefore, as a way to monitor my professional growth and leadership development, I have decided to create an electronic portfolio that demonstrates the technology learning activities used with my students across all content areas. So far, I have begun the process of including in my portfolio interactive Smart Board activities and writing assignments that my students have created on the computer. As the school year continues, I plan to implement a variety of technology related activities students have used to help make learning more engaging and interactive.

In addition, as a way to more efficiently monitor my progress, I have slightly modified my action plan. I have decided to update my electronic portfolio on a weekly basis, instead of monthly. Updating my portfolio weekly allows me the opportunity to include interactive technology activities as I complete my weekly lesson plans. I have learned that integrating technology into the curriculum as I create my lesson plan ensures my students more frequent opportunities to be enriched throughout every school week.

As a way to increase my self-directed learning, I have used more online resources to increase my knowledge and learn new skills about integrating technology across content areas. I have also continued professional dialogue with my colleagues, on a weekly basis, about the interactive technology activities I have used in various subject areas.

The new question I have to explore is how to find more time to incorporate individual use of technology on a weekly basis, instead of just using the interactive Smart Board for whole group lessons. Last year, I used to check out the wireless laptop cart once a week for my students to use as an added piece to their technology integration. Unfortunately, with the way our schedule works this year, I have found it very challenging to find an extended period of the day where I can get the wireless laptop cart, set it up and allow time for students to work independently. I may have to sign up for the computer lab that is already set up with computers instead of bringing the wireless laptop cart to my classroom. Although the students thought it was cool to have laptops in the classroom once a week, this year’s students may have to experience the computers in a different way due to less flexibility in our class schedule this year.


Cennamo, K., Ross J., and Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom use: A standards-based approach. (Laureate Education, Inc., Custom ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Carrying Out My GAME Plan

After reviewing my GAME Plan, I realize that I will need the continual support of my colleagues to further my professional growth. I have begun the process of creating an electronic portfolio by having the students type a paragraph that describes an Ultimate Playground Project that they recently created for homework. The students were able to type their stories at school while being introduced to some basic computer skills. I have created a folder with all of their typed paragraphs on the school’s database and I plan to post their paragraphs on our class webpage. In addition, I plan to use our class webpage as the main source for others to view the items in my electronic portfolio. I will ask our technology support staff for additional help on creating links that parents can easily click on to see all of the technology projects students have created throughout the school year.

I hope that parents and staff members will be able to see the progression of student capabilities on the computer as the school year continues. I will continue to use the support and creative ideas from my Walden colleagues through online discussions and our learning resources to gain further information needed that will help make this electronic portfolio a success.

Thursday, September 16, 2010

Developing My Personal GAME Plan


In order to be a more self-directed and lifelong learner, I would like to strengthen my confidence and proficiency in the following two areas:


• Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership

• Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity


In order to engage in professional growth and leadership, I would like to take further action towards increasing my skills and knowledge in the area of integrating technology in the classroom. One way to accomplish this goal is to grow from the knowledge gained from my master’s degree education through Walden University. I will use the ideas gained from my course resources and the experiences shared from my colleagues to enhance my own learning experiences. I will also use the online resources from professional journals to increase my level of understanding with various technological tools and programs that can be useful to increase student learning.

According to Cennamo, et al. (2009), creative thinkers have the ability to “generate a large number of original ideas”. In order to motivate my students to become more creative thinkers, I will model creative and innovative thinking within my classroom. I hope that through my modeling, students will be able to reflect upon and demonstrate more creative thinking. Students will also use more technology to develop their creative thinking and reasoning skills. Finally, I plan to use more authentic instruction to facilitate creative thinking by providing more opportunities to have experimental, inductive and hands-on learning across content areas.


As a way to monitor my professional growth and leadership, Cennamo, Ross, and Ertmer (2009) recommend I “find a product or performance that will demonstrate to myself and others that I have obtained my goal”. Therefore, I will monitor and reflect on my professional growth by creating a portfolio of the technology used with my students across various content areas. I plan to update my portfolio monthly with a description of the technology used within my classroom as well as the response and success technology had towards my students’ overall achievement and engagement towards learning.

In addition, I will use the same portfolio to monitor my goal with facilitating student creativity and learning. I hope that the technology used will also enhance students’ abilities to express their creativity and interests in learning.


As a way to evaluate my portfolio, I will continuously reflect on how the use of technology in the classroom has helped increase both my professional growth and student learning. As a way to evaluate student achievement, I will compare my current students’ test scores and project outcomes to those of last year and see if there were any gains in overall student achievement. I will also ask my students to complete a survey in which they describe how, if at all, technology has influenced their learning and creativity throughout the school year.


Cennamo, K., Ross J., and Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom use: A standards-based approach. (Laureate Education, Inc., Custom ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Sunday, August 22, 2010

My Reflection on Supporting Information Literacy and Online Inquiry

One of the most striking revelations I had about teaching new literacy skills was having my students develop their own essential questions. Armstrong (2009) stated that students should identify their own questions to explore, based on the academic standards that must be addressed. This statement helped me realize that essential questions can become much more powerful and beneficial for students when they create their own questions based on the required content area. The idea of students creating their own essential questions confirms my longtime belief in that students should have an active role in their learning. When students are more actively engaged, I believe it helps them become more inspired to learn. In addition, Armstrong (2009) confirmed that good essential questions lead to inquiry-based projects that help all students problem solve and develop new ways of thinking. Therefore, I will take the knowledge and experience I’ve gained from this course about student led inquiry-based learning and use it to help influence my students to become 21st century learners. I plan to also further my professional development by reading accredited journal articles through the use of online resources such as Google Scholar and EBSCO Host. These professional journal articles will provide me with useful ways to help students develop their new literacy skills. Furthermore, I will take the information gained from these journal articles and initiate professional dialogues with my colleagues about helping our students become 21st century learners.

The challenge for me will be to allow my students to come up with their own questions, as opposed to simply giving them the questions to explore. In doing so, I will mainly act as a facilitator by guiding my students into developing strong questions that will help them think in broader ways. I will also use technology to help assist students with developing appropriate essential questions and to assist them throughout their inquiry process. Thornburg (2004) affirmed that technology supports students’ learning during their inquiry process and it also provides images that allow students to stop and reflect on their inquiries. Throughout the school year, I will provide my students with multiple opportunities to use technology as a supporting tool throughout their inquiry learning experiences.


Thornburg, D. (2004). Inquiry: The art of helping students ask good questions. (Executive Briefing No. 402). Retrieved from

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). Supporting information literacy and online inquiry in the classroom: Essential questions in inquiry projects. Baltimore: Armstrong, S.

Sunday, April 25, 2010

My Reflection on Bridging Learning Theory, Instruction and Technology

As a result of my learning from this course, I have truly learned how to bridge learning theories, instructional practices and various technology tools to further enhance and enrich my students’ overall learning experiences. It has been a pleasure exploring how to integrate the theoretical foundations of our educational system into the 21st century classroom. Now, I have a better understanding of how these traditional learning theories and instructional practices apply to our students of today and the way students grow and develop cognitively and socially as learners.

Earlier in this course, I developed a personal learning theory that incorporated a combination of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory and Albert Bandura’s social learning theory. My personal learning theory stated that all students have the capacity to become successful learners and achieve at their highest levels as long as they are given valuable experiences that support their learning styles. In addition, students’ experiences, their intelligences and their higher order thinking can be enhanced through continuous peer collaborations and discussions. Furthermore, technology can be used as an engaging and influential tool to further facilitate peer collaboration and the teaching – learning process within the classroom. I still strongly support my personal learning theory because it truly enhances students’ overall achievement within the classroom. To ensure students have an opportunity to learn at their highest levels, I will take a balanced approach and include different learning theories, such as the behaviorist learning theory and cognitive learning theory, as a foundation for the instructional practices used within my classroom in order to better meet the needs of all students.

Moreover, as a way to stay current with the today’s times and to continue student engagement through the use of technology, I plan to research more about voice threads and online concept mapping tools so that my students will be able to showcase their learning on our class webpage. I especially would like to incorporate voice threads as a final communication piece of our second grade persuasive writing unit. I would love for students to voice their opinions on a particular topic and try to persuade others to feel the same way. With the use of voice threads, their classmates could either write or record their thoughts on whether they agree with their classmates or not. I believe this technology tool would help facilitate student learning as they learn how to communicate effectively with supporting details, facts or images that would help influence their peers to agree with them.

It is my long term goal to ensure that our classroom truly becomes a classroom without walls. I want all of my students’ parents and family members to have the opportunity to see all of the learning that takes place without necessarily ever having to step foot inside our room. Through the use of our class webpage, parents and family members, from all over the country would be able to take virtual field trips to our classroom and see all of the great and exciting things we are learning on a regular basis. In addition, it is my goal to have an ongoing blog where parents can communicate to students how much they have enjoyed their visit to our classroom in order to further support student learning. Parents can also ask questions to students about their experiences working on a particular project and students can write back to parents answering those questions. In order to help make this goal happen, I plan to get in contact with our school’s media specialist and information technology staff members to ensure students’ identities and work samples are not compromised over the internet. Once I have a way to ensure the protection of our students and our classroom, then I would also make sure that I have the support of our parents and administration. If for some reason, we are not able to showcase our learning on our class webpage, then I would provide copies of our class projects on CDs and encourage parents to email the class their comments and questions in order to continue constant dialogue between parents and students as well as the teacher.

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Connectivism and Social Learning in Practice

In today’s society, many people use technology to communicate with each other through social networking for both business and for pleasure. Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn and Malenoski (2007) suggest that in order for students “to be prepared for the fast-paced, virtual workplace that they will inherit, today’s students need to be able to learn and produce cooperatively”. During school, when students work together in cooperative groups, they will able to increase their learning (Pitler et al., 2007). Cooperative groups provide students with opportunities to practice their communication skills and expand their knowledge on how to collaborate and work together as a team to build meaningful artifacts that benefit everyone involved in the group. Furthermore, students can transfer what they’ve learned from working in cooperative groups to interacting in social networks business purposes once they have moved on to their workplace environment. Cooperative learning helps students successfully contextualize knowledge learned in school to real world situations and minimizes the idea of situated cognition in which students have inert knowledge (Orey, 2009).

In my second grade classroom, I try to use cooperative learning as much as possible. Students are placed in formal, informal and base groups depending on the type of activity and its purpose. Pitler et al. (2007) recommend various types of cooperative learning groups by giving students multimedia projects and web resources to use in order to create an artifact together as a group. Although some of the types of projects and web resources provided may be a little too advance for my students to work on, I do like the idea of using technological resources to help facilitate student learning, especially while working in cooperative groups. I have found first hand that when students are placed together in groups their learning increases and they are great at trying to help each other reach the same level of understanding as they have about a particular topic.

During cooperative learning, especially when technology is incorporated, I enjoy hearing students communicate with one another in a way that is very simplistic and childlike so that their peers can relate and gain a better understanding. Cooperative learning provides both high and low achievers a chance to grow and develop as learners because they both have opportunities to take the role of teacher and supporter (Orey, 2009). Therefore all learners, regardless of their level of understanding, can benefit from each other in significant ways when social learning is supported through cooperative grouping.

Orey, M. (Presenter). (2009). Bridging learning theory, instruction, and technology. [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Education, Inc

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Constructionism in Practice

As teachers, we should want to ignite a spark in our students that inspires them to want to learn at their highest level. When students are actively engaged in their learning and create artifacts that reflect their learning, then they are truly exemplifying the spark that is igniting within them. Although it may be difficult to keep students continuously inspired and engaged within the classroom, I believe technology helps provides students with resources to create meaningful learning experiences. In addition, when students create or build artifacts to reflect their learning, then they have modeled the constructionist theory.

According to Dr. Orey (2009), teachers should take on the constructionist approach with their students because it supports the idea of students learning best when they are able to construct or build things in order to deepen their understanding of various concepts and skills. For example, Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn and Malenoski (2007) suggest that technology resources such as spreadsheet software, data collection tools, and Web resources help enhance students’ learning experiences because it allows them the opportunity to create and interact with data in a very quick and efficient manner. In addition, technology resources such as interactive spreadsheets, helps develop students’ critical thinking skills and promotes the use of educated decision making (Pitler et al., 2007).

Although my second grade students may be too young to generate and test hypothesis with interactive spreadsheet software, I do believe students can work in small groups to create interesting project-based activities in which they learn how to work together and collaborate on a common theme or idea. Through project-based activities, technology can prove to be a wonderful and resourceful tool for students. These learning experiences also promote an excellent constructionist approach to learning within the classroom.

Orey, M. (Presenter). (2009). Bridging learning theory, instruction, and technology. [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Education, Inc.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Cognitivism in Practice

In today's time, there are so many opportunities for students to enhance their learning in the classroom through the integration of instructional strategies and technological tools. No longer are students confined to simply taking notes with pencil and paper while listening to their teacher lecture, but with the support of technology, students now have a world of knowledge and cognitive strategies presented to them in very meaningful and engaging way. In today’s classroom, teachers can provide more comprehensive lessons for students as they take notes with advanced graphic organizers that help them summarize their thoughts about new and complex concepts (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2008). Through the use of word processing applications, teachers can present their notes to the class on the projector and provide students with spreadsheets, charts or tables to help further organize their thoughts about the lesson or concept being taught (Lever-Duffy and McDonald, 2008). What is even more fascinating is that if students have the opportunity to take notes on their computers during a lesson, then they can share their thinking with their classmates on their class webpage. This will help to provide additional support for students and provoke meaningful discussions about various concepts and skills being taught in class. With the support of technology, these cognitive instructional tools help make learning more powerful and more interactive than ever before.

When I think about my own experience as a young student, I immediately remember being in my American history class and feeling completely bored and disconnected with learning. My teacher would always sit on the corner of his desk and read us his lesson to us in a very monotone voice. We would try to swiftly record everything he said to us so that we could memorize it for the next exam. I remember thinking this was the most uninteresting class I have ever had and it took everything within me not to fall asleep during the lesson. Just imagine how much American history would have come alive if our teacher added just one simple component and that was technology through cognitive learning. Envision our teacher taking his students on a virtual field trip to an historical place. The virtual field trip would have created episodic memories for us that would provide wonderful, solid learning experiences to enhance our short and long term memories (Orey, 2009). These visual experiences would help provide the tools needed not only to do well on our exams, but to also help instill a love of learning for the remainder of our lives. No longer would I have approached his class with hesitation and boredom, but through the use of technology-based cognitive learning, I would have come with much more excitement and eagerness to learn at my highest level.


Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. (2008). Theoretical foundations (Laureate Education, Inc.,
custom ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Orey, M. (Presenter). (2009). Bridging learning theory, instruction, and technology. [DVD]. Baltimore, MD:

Laureate Education, Inc.

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Behaviorism in Today's Classroom

According to Lever-Duffy and McDonald (2008), behaviorists believe learners gain knowledge and skills as a result of receiving rewards and punishments. Lever-Duffy and McDonald (2008) also suggest that behaviorists, such as Ivan Pavlov, John Watson and B.F. Skinner, believe rewards provide positive reinforcements for learning and it will result in students repeating the desired behaviors in hopes of gaining more positive reinforcements. With that in mind, behaviorist learning can correlate well with instructional strategies used in the classroom as long as the instructional strategies used provide plenty of positive reinforcements for students achieving the desired responses or behaviors. For instance, Pitler, Hubbell, Kuhn and Malenoski (2007) provide instructional strategies for reinforcing student efforts in order to promote higher student achievements and increase positive student attitudes about learning. More specifically, Pitler et al. (2007) suggest that teachers produce an electronic spreadsheet that shows students what effort looks like and how their effort can relate to their test scores in school. Hopefully, students will feel positive reinforcements for putting forth great effort and producing excellent grades. Subsequently, students should feel negative reinforcement for not putting for great effort and therefore making inadequate grades and low achievement in school.

When I think about my own students and the types of instructional strategies I use to provide positive reinforcement to promote student achievement, I immediately think about the table rewards students receive for paying attention in class and contributing in a positive, thoughtful way during our class discussions. When students answer challenging questions correctly or show great efforts with their thinking, even if they’re answers turn out to be incorrect, I reward the students with school coins or dollars for their tables. At the end of the week, the table of students to reach a certain amount or highest amount of money win a special treat from our treasure box. In this sense, I have demonstrated behaviorist learning because the students receive rewards for their attentiveness and great efforts shown in class. Although I do not give out rewards every time students exhibit desired behaviors or responses because I still want to promote their intrinsic motivation, I am sure that it is very self-satisfying and reassuring for students to receive acknowledgement for their hard work and efforts shown in class.


Lever-Duffy, J. & McDonald, J. (2008). Theoretical foundations (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.